This Drupal 8 article is obsolete. It was published in January 2015, eleven months before Drupal 8 was released and prior to a composer-based workflow being implemented.
Often there are components of a Drupal website that should not be located in the document root such as configuration files, deployment scripts, and functional tests. By utilising Git subtrees, a Drupal installation root (or web server document root) may be below the root of the main repository. Upstream changes to Drupal core may be conveniently merged with git read-tree.
- Initialise Git repository
- Add upstream remote
- Checkout a local copy of the upstream branch
- Pull upstream into a subdirectory in the master branch
- Create a .gitingore for Drupal core
- Create directories outside the document root
- Create the files directory and set permissions
- Create database
- Site installation
- Drupal configuration directories
- Export configuration
- Update Drupal core
- Further reading
Initialise Git repository and add your .gitignore, README, and LICENSE files.
$ mkdir myproject $ cd myproject $ git init Initialized empty Git repository in /var/www/myproject/.git/ $ vi README.md $ git add README.md $ git commit -m "Add README.md" [master (root-commit) 3a30763] Add README.txt 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+) create mode 100644 README.txt
Add the drupal.org git repository as a remote with the name upstream. To improve efficiency specify that only the 8.0.x branch is to be tracked with the -t option.
$ git remote add -t 8.0.x upstream http://git.drupal.org/project/drupal.git $ git fetch upstream
Checkout a local copy of the upstream/8.0.x branch.
$ git checkout -b upstream upstream/8.0.x Branch upstream set up to track remote branch 8.0.x from upstream by rebasing. Switched to a new branch 'upstream'
The upstream/8.0.x branch is pulled in as a subdirectory of the master branch using the git read-tree command. The name of the subdirectory is specified with the --prefix option; in this case drupal/.
$ git checkout master $ git merge -s ours --no-commit upstream/8.0.x Automatic merge went well; stopped before committing as requested $ git read-tree --prefix=drupal/ -u upstream/8.0.x $ git commit [master bd410e7] Merge remote-tracking branch 'upstream/8.0.x'
The upstream branch is now a subdirectory of the master branch.
$ tree -L 2 . |-- drupal | |-- composer.json | |-- core | |-- example.gitignore | |-- index.php | |-- modules | |-- profiles | |-- README.txt | |-- robots.txt | |-- sites | |-- themes | ``-- web.config ``-- README.md 6 directories, 7 files
Drupal core has an example .gitignore file which provides an excellent starting point and is sufficient for most projects.
$ cp drupal/example.gitignore drupal/.gitignore $ git add drupal/.gitignore $ git commit -m "Add .gitignore for Drupal core"
As the document root is now below the repository root, files and directories may be committed to the repository without exposing them to the web server.
In this example—when configuring the web server—the document root is set to /var/www/myproject/drupal.
$ mkdir -p config/active config/staging config/deploy $ tree -L 2 . |-- config | |-- active | |-- deploy | ``-- staging |-- drupal | |-- composer.json | |-- core | |-- example.gitignore | |-- index.php | |-- modules | |-- profiles | |-- README.txt | |-- robots.txt | |-- sites | |-- themes | ``-- web.config ``-- README.md 9 directories, 7 files
The Drupal files directory must be manually created.
$ mkdir drupal/sites/default/files
To work efficiently with Drush the files in sites/default/files should be writeable both by the web server and command-line user. An alternative to chmod -R 777 sites/default/files is to use Access Control Lists.
$ HTTPDUSER=``ps aux | grep -E '[a]pache|[h]ttpd|[_]www|[w]ww-data|[n]ginx' | \ grep -v root | head -1 | cut -d\ -f1`` $ sudo setfacl -R -m u:"$HTTPDUSER":rwX -m u:`whoami`:rwX drupal/sites/default/files $ sudo setfacl -dR -m u:"$HTTPDUSER":rwX -m u:`whoami`:rwX drupal/sites/default/files
HTTPDUSER is usually www-data on Debian-based distributions.
It may be convenient to add similar ACL permissions to the config/active, config/staging, and config/deploy directories.
Open a MySQL console:
$ mysql -uroot -p
Create database and user:
CREATE DATABASE db; CREATE USER 'dbuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON db.* TO 'dbuser'@'localhost'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Install the site with the standard install profile and change the administrator password.
$ cd drupal $ drush site-install standard --db-url=mysql://dbuser:password@localhost/db \ --site-name=drupal8 $ drush upwd admin --password=password
Edit sites/default/settings.php and update the location of the configuration directories.
<?php // Default config directories provided by the installer. $config_directories['active'] = '../config/active'; $config_directories['staging'] = '../config/staging'; // Config directory used for deployments. $config_directories['deploy'] = '../config/deploy';
Export the configuration from the database into the deploy configuration directory.
$ cd drupal/ $ drush config-export deploy Configuration successfully exported to ../config/deploy. [success]
Once exported, this configuration may be committed to the Git repository. As part of the deployment process the configuration may be imported with the command drush config-import deploy.
To merge upstream change to Drupal core the Git subtree merge strategy is used.
$ git pull -s subtree upstream 8.0.x
The preceding command merges the history of upstream with the main repository. If it is not preferable to merge histories the --squash and --no-commit options can be used along with the -s subtree strategy option:
$ git checkout master $ git merge --squash -s subtree --no-commit upstream Squash commit -- not updating HEAD Automatic merge went well; stopped before committing as requested
Remember to rebuild the cache after each merge:
$ drush cache-rebuild